BIRDS

Brazil’s OwlsAthenes cunicularia  Foto: Cláudio Roberto ( colaborador)

    As it is known by us, Brazil is the country that has the biggest biodiversity in the world, and one of the biggest in quantity of bird species, in a way that our bird fauna is too rich, and it is composed of many families and its enormous quantity of species.
    Talking about the owls, there are in Brazil 34 forms among species and subspecies, which follow bellow:
    This list was done for helping birdwatchers.

    TYTONIDAE FAMILY
- Tyto alba (Suindara ou Coruja-branca; Barn Owl). Cosmopolitan bird, existing almost all around the world, and existing all around Brazil. It mainly lives near human habitation, where it is used to nest at the church and towers. The voice looks like the sound of tearing a cloth, which usually emits in flying. Size: 37 cm. Two forms in Brazil:
Tyto alba tuidara. This form occurs at central and oriental Brazil. For the south area up to the Fire Land and west in Chile.
- Tyto alba hellmagri. It occurs at Venezuela’s east and Guineas and from the extreme north up to the left bank of Amazonas River.

    STRINGIDAE FAMILY
Bubo virginianus (João-curucutu;Great Horned Owl). It occurs all around Brazil, and it is the biggest owl of Americas. It breeds from animals of big port as: cutie’s youngs, cats, pries etc. At the sunlight, it sleeps in the forest, on big trees, and at night, it goes near human habitation in isolated places, for catching small-domesticated animals. It is easily found, mainly in couples, at the capons in the region of Nhecolândia-MS. 52 cm. Two forms:
- Bubo virginianus nacurutu. It occurs at South America. In Brazil at Amazônia, Mato Grosso, Goias and R.G.do Sul.
- Bubo virginianus deserti. This form habits the arid area of Brazil Northeast.
- Pulsatrix perspicillata (Murucututu-cara-branca; Spectacled Owl). Habits high forests, not being just nighter. Size: 48 cm.
- Pulsatrix perspicillata perspicillata. North area of South America and Brazil. Regions of dense forests.
- Pulsatrix perspicillata pulsatrix. It lives at the atlantic side of forest from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul.
- Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Corujão-mateiro;Tawny-browed Owl). It lives at forest regions at the Southeast of Brazil. Size: 44 cm.
- Asio stygius stygius (Mocho-diabo; Stygian Owl). It lives at forests and scrubs.Occurs at Southeast and Amazônia. Size: 38 cm.
- Asio flammeus suinda (Coruja-do-banhado;Short-eared Owl). Their ears are too small and near one of the other. It occurs at South and Southeast area of Brazil up to the Fire Land. It habits drowns where it is used to gliding and open areas for migrating. Size: 37 cm.
- Lophostrix cristata cristata (Corujão-de-topete;Crested Owl). Long ears, forming a V. It occurs from Venezuela to Bolivia, Mato Grosso North and Pará.It habits forests of Amazônia. Size: 39,5 cm
- Cicaba huhula (Coruja-preta; Black-banded Owl). Size: 35 cm.
- Cicaba huhula huhula. Occurs at Amazônia, Maranhão, Piaui, almost all around Brazil. High forest and pine trees areas.
- Cicaba huhula albomarginata. It is distributed from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina.
- Ciccaba virgata (Coruja-de-bigodes; Mottled Owl). Size: 34 cm.
- Ciccaba virgata superciliaris. It habits the Amazonian forests.
- Ciccaba virgata borreliana. Forests from South Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul.
- Strix hylophila (Coruja-pintada; Rusty-barred Owl). It occurs at Brazil’s South and Southeast. Paraguay, North Argentina. Forests edge. Size: 35 cm.
- Rhinoptyrix (Asio) clamator midas (Mocho-orelhudo;Striped Owl). It habits open areas where are trees. It occurs almost all around Brazil, but not at Amazônia. Size: 37 cm.
- Otus sanctaecatarine (Corujinha; Long-tufted Screech Owl). It occurs at Santa Catarina, having some diversity about if it is a specie or subspecie of the one above.
- Otus choliba (Corujinha-do-mato; Tropical Screech-Owl). Occurs at Costa Rica to Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina and all around Brazil, being one of the most common; in the forest board and near human habitation, where are a lot of insects attracted by the lights, mainly from the posts. Eminently of night habits. Size: 22 cm.
There are five forms:
- Otus choliba choliba. South Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay e North Argentina.
- Otus choliba crucigerus. Occurs at low Amazonas and Brazil’s center.
- Otus choliba caatingensis. Northeast Brazil.
- Otus choliba decussatus. East Brazil.
- Otus choliba chapadenssis. South Brazil.
- Otus atricapillus (Corujinha-orelhuda;Long-tufted Screech-Owl). Developed ears. Habits forests. Besides Brazil it also exists at Paraguay, Argentina (Missiones) and Uruguay. Size: 24 cm.
Two forms at Brazil:
- Otus atricapillus atricapillus. Central regions and South Brazil.
- Otus atricapillus argentinus. Brazil’s South Area.
- Otus watsonii (Corujinha-amazônica;Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl). Long ears. It habits pine trees areas and forests. Occurs from Venezuela to Bolivia, Mato Grosso, Pará, Amapá. Size: 22 cm.
There are four forms:
- Otus watsonii watsonii. Occurs at North Amazônia.
- Otus watsonii ater. Central Brazil.
- Otus watsonii usta. Central Brazil and North Argentina.
- Otus watsonii fulvescens. Central Brazil up North Bolivia.
- Otus guatemalae (Corujinha-de-Roraima;Vermiculated Screech Owl). Roraima’s North Area. Size: 19 cm.
- Speotyto (Athenes) cunicularia cunicularia (Coruja-do-campo ou Coruja-buraqueira; Burrowing Owl). It occurs almost all around Brazil, habiting the areas of open forest, where it is used to nesting termites areas and holes in the soil, having a big number of young. Day and night habits. It breeds of insects. Size: 23 cm.
There are two forms at Brazil:
- Athenes cunicularia grallaria. East and central Brazil.
- Athenes cunicularia cunicularia. South Brazil to Fire Land.
- Aegolius harrisii iheringi (Caburé-canela; Buff-fronted Owl).It habits small forests and scrub of Southeast and Northeast Brazil, Paraguay and North Argentina. Size: 20 cm.
- Glancidium minutissimum minutissimum (Caburé-ferrugem;Least Pigmy-Owl). It habits open forests at the east of Brazil, also occuring at Guiana and Suriname. Size: 14 cm.
- Glaucidium brasilianum brasilianum (Caburé;Ferruginous Pigmy-Owl).It habits forested areas, edge of the forests and scrub of almost all Brazil area, being our smallest owl. It vocalizes at night and day, being observed at Pantanal region vocalizing almost all day long without stopping. Size: 16,5 cm.

    Bibliography for the elaboration of this list:

- BURTON, J.A. ed.1973. Ows of the world: their evolution, structure and ecology. Milano, Librex. 216 p.
- DUNNING, J.S. 1989. South American birds. Newton Square, Harrowood Books. 351p.
- FRISCH, J.D. 1981. Aves brasileiras. São Paulo, Dalgas-Ecoltec Ecologia Técnica. 353 p.
- HOWARD, R.; MOORE, A. 1991. A complete checklist of te birds of the world. 2. ed. London, Academic Press. 622 p.
- SCHAUENSEE, R.M. de. A Guide to the Birds of South America. ICBP, 1982. 498 p.
- SICK, HELMUT. Ornitologia Brasileira.
- SOUZA, DEODATO. Todas as aves do Brasil. Editora DALL. 1998.

         Sites

Birds of Prey
Burrowing Owl Links
Chevêche d'Athéna (Athene noctua)
Chouette Magazine International
Db File Systems
Fritton Lake Falconry Centre
Group Noctua
Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History
Instituut voor Natuurbehoud
International Little Owl Working Group
Kibbutz Lotan Centre for Birdwatching
LBV-kempten-oberallgaeu
Les Chouetted et Hiboux du Saguenay/Lac-St-Jean
Medina Raptor Center
Our Owl Family
Owl Photography in New Jersey
Owls 2000
Owls Ex Libris Bookplate Gallery
Owls Page at Stockpix.com
Owlwatch
Randy Lauff's Owl Research
Raptors of the Rockies
Rigel Optics
The Catalan Ringing Group
The Golden Gate Raptor Observatory
The Suffolk Owl Sanctuary
World Of Owls
Yahoo/Corbis Owl picture Gallery

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