WOMAN AND ENVIRONMENT
By her innumerable way of participation and activity into society, with high influence in the political decisions of development, directly or indirectly, woman can't be put out of the environmental question, by the way, she is related to it and as a consequence to the sustainable development.
Mainly the development of the ocidentalized societies has been bringing to woman better life conditions and the recognizing of the fundamental importance that she is in the nations lives, what can be noticed with the realizing of national, regions and international conferences about the subject.
In the conferences emerged some really important documents that must be recognized and used by the governs.
Conferences and international instruments for women's protection:
- World Conference of Woman International Year. Mexico, 1975;
- World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Woman. Copenhagen, 1980.
- Convention for the elimination of any discrimination to woman (1979)
It was adopted by the Resolution 34/180 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, n December 18th of 1979. Ratified by Brazil in 02.01.1984.
By this convention the States that are part of it have to create a politic for eliminating the discrimination against woman, having as a compromise:
a) consecrate, if it isn't already done, in its National Constitutions or in another appropriate legislation, the principle of equality between woman and man and to assure by the law and another adequate means the practice of this principle;
b) adopt adequate ways, legislative and another ones, with sanction and some ways that prohibit any kind of discrimination against woman;
c) establish juridical protection to the woman's right in an equality basis to the man's rights and guarantee, by the competent national Courts and from another public institutions, the effective woman's protections against any discrimination act;
d) being absent of coming in every discrimination act or practice against woman and being careful for the authorities and public institutions work as this obligation;
e) take some appropriate acts for eliminating the discrimination against woman practiced by any person, organization or enterprise;
f) adopt all the adequate acts, including legislative character, for changing laws, or any other object that has something discriminative against woman;
g) derogate all the national penal dispositions that are discriminative in relation to woman.
United Nation Conference about Women, Nairobi, Kenya.(1985).
- United Nation Conference about Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro, 1992.
In this Conference, also known as Rio-92, the most important document about development emerged, being created a new way of development called sustainable, Agenda 21. In its chapter 24, World Action for Woman, taking care of a sustainable development and equality, where a lot of documents are signed, action planes and conventions for the woman integration in the activities related to sustainable development.
- Interamerican Convention for preventing, punishing and eradication the violence against woman. Belém do Pará Convention, 1994.
It has considered that violence against woman is a violation of Human Rights and of the fundamental freedoms.
It has called the States that are part for being careful in the prevention, punishing and eradication of any way of violence against woman.
- Pequin Declaration (1995)
Adopted by the Fourth World Women's Conference: Action for the equality, development and peace, realized in September of 1995, in Pequin, China.
There was a big increase in this Declaration of woman related to thinking freedom, religion and of organizing their lives accordingly to their own conviction. All the woman rights of controlling all the aspects of their health and fertility life were recognized. For the first time their reproductive rights were recognized.
It was also assured for woman the equal participation in the sustainable development and equality of access to economical resources, science, technology, professional capacitating etc.
- World Woman Conference. Beijing,1995.
Realized from September 4th to 15th in 1995, in Beijing, China.
Here emerged the Beijing Action Platform, which consecrate the international community's compromise for the developing of women rights, bringing the introduction of values changing, acts and practices that show the inequality and discrimination against woman, in the public and private life.
The Action Platform had as basis 12 spheres that followed as basis for the Action Platform:
1. the persistent and growing poverty on woman;
2. unequal woman's access to educational opportunities and its insufficiency;
3. the inequalities in the health state and to the access to the health services and its inadequate character;
4. violence against woman;
5. effects of the gun conflicts and another ones on woman;
6. inequality of access and in woman's participation in relation to political and economical structures definitions and the production processes;
7. inequality between men and women in the power participation and in the decisions making in all of the spheres;
8. insufficient existent ways in all of the plans for promoting woman's advancement;
9. lack of conscious of women human rights internationally and nationally recognized and the lack of compromise for these rights;
10. lack of divulgation from the communication means for promoting the value woman contribution for society;
11. lack of sufficient recognizing for feminine contribution in the govern of natural resources and environment preservation, and the lack of adequate support for this contribution;
Woman and environment:
These advances in woman's rights have put her in first plan in a lot of countries, with personal and political conditions for fighting for the main subjects and humanity and environmental questions.
In the environmental ones, women are outstanding with acts in favor to forests, sustainable development, cultural and notably for animal rights, having as a main precursor the famous actress Brigitte Bardot. Here in Brazil specials remark for Rita Lee.
A lot of prosecutors are also acting for environmental preservation, judging environmental public civil actions, as lawyers are acting in the Environment Commissions of the Brazilian Lawyers Order.
In the environment's protection associations in general we are also seeing the bigger and bigger woman acting.
So, nowadays woman have reached rights that were never exercised before, for her personal efforts and of their entities, as the own right evolution, notably in the occidental countries.
Studies, debates and results of worldwide conferences about woman rights were essential in this evolutionary process and its letters, recommendations, declarations and agendas must be divulged for the effective and concrete equality battle being winner, putting woman in he place that she always must had been, fighting for surviving beside man. It is what is expected.
So the importance for celebrating Woman International Day, with discussions and debates about the subject, making each time more alive the millenium fight.
Woman International Day: March 8th
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